Friday, July 6, 2007

Frame Relay (II)

Frame relay is a high-speed, packet-switching WAN protocol that connects
geographically dispersed LANs. Frame relay is usually offered by a public
network provider; however, private organizations can acquire and manage their
own frame relay networks as well.
Frame relay is a connection-oriented protocol, which means that it relies on
end-to-end paths between devices connected across the network. It implements
these connections using permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) or switched virtual
circuits (SVCs).

Frame relay assumes that networks use transmission lines with low error rates,
such as digital transmission media. Therefore, frame relay provides only basic
error detection with no error recovery. This minimizes the processing required for
each packet, allowing frame relay networks to operate at high speeds with few
network delays.
Because frame relay performs only basic error checking, end stations running
upper-layer protocols such as the Internet Protocol (IP) are responsible for
resending packets that did not transmit correctly the first time.
Permanent Virtual Circuits
A permanent virtual circuit (PVC) is a dedicated logical path that connects two
devices over a network. When configured, a PVC is always available to the
connected devices; a PVC does not require setup before data can travel across the
network, nor does it need to be disconnected after data has passed. Because many
PVCs can coexist for one physical line, devices can share the bandwidth of the
transmission line.
Switched Virtual Circuits
A switched virtual circuit (SVC) is a logical path that is established on an
as-needed basis. That is, an SVC exists only when there is data to transfer. SVCs
can connect any two points on a network without the requirement that the provider
preconfigure virtual circuits (VCs).
SVCs can provide an alternative to a large network infrastructure, potentially
resulting in cost savings for networks with infrequent communications between
sites. SVCs can also provide an easy and relatively inexpensive solution for
disaster recovery. Costs associated with having a redundant PVC are eliminated.
In addition, you can prepare an SVC network for disaster recovery by performing
incremental backups to a mirror-image database on a remote server.
In addition to cost savings, SVCs provide other benefits. When frame relay
networks using global addressing approach a thousand sites, they run out of data
link connection identifiers (DLCIs). SVCs enable you to manage connectivity on
the basis of use rather than permanent connections. Using SVCs also simplifies
network administration because you do not have to preconfigure network
topologies and support moves, additions, and changes, as with PVCs. This can be
a significant benefit in large, highly meshed networks.


SVCs provide true bandwidth-on-demand service that you can customize based
on the application in use. For example, a short interactive session might use an
SVC with a low or zero committed information rate (CIR) or throughput rate,
while a large file transfer of time-critical data might require an SVC at a high CIR
value.



Frame Relay Packets
Figure 1-1 illustrates the structure of a frame relay packet. The packet’s header
field includes the following:
• Data link connection identifier (DLCI)
The DLCI is the virtual circuit identification number. The frame relay network
uses the DLCI to direct basic data flow. You configure the DLCI for PVCs.
For SVCs, the frame relay switch assigns the DLCI number on a per call
basis.
• Command/response bit (C/R)
ITU-T (formerly CCITT) standards do not use this bit.
• Forward explicit congestion notification (FECN) and backward explicit
congestion notification (BECN)
The FECN and BECN indicate congestion on the network. For information
about how the frame relay software uses these bits
• Discard eligibility (DE)
The DE bit allows the router to mark specific frames as low priority (discard
eligible) before transmitting them to the frame relay network.
• Extended address bit (EA)
The EA bit signals whether the next byte is part of the address. This bit
indicates the last byte of the DLCI.







Figure 1-1. Frame Relay Header: 2-Byte Format



Figure 1-1 shows the frame relay header as a 2-byte structure. Frame relay can
also format the header using 3 or 4 bytes, as shown in Figure 1-2. Note, however,
that you must configure the frame relay interface on the router to use the same
header length as the switched network to which it is connected.



Figure 1-2. Frame Relay Header: 3- and 4-Byte Formats


Management Protocols
Frame relay is an access protocol that runs between a router or data terminal
equipment (DTE) and a switch or data communications equipment (DCE). The
router and the switch use the Data Link Control Management Interface (DLCMI)
to exchange information about the interface and the status of each virtual circuit

DLCMI supports three standard data link management specifications: LMI, ANSI
T1.617 Annex D, and CCITT (now ITU-T) Q.933 Annex A.
• The networking industry first developed the Local Management Interface
(LMI) specification. The LMI approach is asymmetric; the router sends a
status-inquiry message to the network, signaling that the router’s connection
to the network is functioning. The network replies with a status response.
• ANSI modified the LMI specification and incorporated it as Annex D to
ANSI standard T1.617. The ANSI method is generally similar to the LMI
approach.
• The CCITT (now ITU-T) modified the ANSI standard and adopted it as
Annex A to Q.933. The CCITT Annex A specification is similar to Annex D,
but it uses an international numbering scheme.
Be sure to configure the frame relay interface on the router to use the same
management protocol as the switched network to which it is connected.

Frame Relay SVC Signaling and LAPF
Figure 1-3 shows the layers of protocol standards for frame relay signaling:
• The LAPF Core layer defines basic frame relay protocol for both PVCs and
SVCs and supports the reliable transfer of multiple numbered frames over
SVCs.
• The DLCMI layer defines link management protocol for PVCs.
• The LAPF and Q.933 layers define link management protocol for SVCs.


Figure 1-3. Frame Relay Signaling and LAPF Standards


The link access procedure, frame mode (LAPF) layer defines five unnumbered
control frames and three numbered supervisory frames on the communications
link.

LAPF defines the following categories of management frames to support reliable
transfer of multiple numbered frames over SVCs:
• Unnumbered control—Provides connection and disconnection services and
includes set asynchronous balanced mode extended (SABME), disconnect
(DISC), frame reject (FRMR), disconnected mode (DM), and unnumbered
acknowledgment (UA) frames.
• Numbered supervisory—Provides flow control and retransmission
information and includes receiver not ready (RNR), receiver ready (RR), and
reject (REJ) frames.
• Numbered information (I)—A numbered command/response that passes data
across the link using a sliding window protocol. The frames are numbered
sequentially and carry an acknowledgment of the highest numbered frame
received by the sending peer. The maximum number of frames outstanding is
configurable. These frames can only be sent after setup of multiple frame
communications on the link. A flag within the frame differentiates a
command from its response.
• Exchange identification (XID)—An unnumbered command/response used to
allow peers to exchange identification information.

LAPF Operational States
LAPF has three main operational states:
• TEI-assigned—The terminal end-point identifier (TEI)-assigned state is the
base interface state. When the LAPF circuit is first established, this is its state.
No timers are running and only unnumbered frames are supported across the
link.
• Active—This state indicates that multiple frame support is up and running on
the interface. Numbered information frames can travel across the link.
• Timer recovery—This state indicates that a timer has expired and the peer is
attempting to recover either through retransmission (T200 timeout) or by
initiating an idle time handshake (T203 timeout).
When multiple frame support is operating on the channel, numbered information
frames are exchanged to transfer data and acknowledge earlier transfers.

LAPF Timeout and Retransmission Timers

Timer T200
Timer T200 detects transmission timeouts. When a timeout occurs, the peer enters
the timer recovery state and retransmits the frame, up to a maximum of N200
times. If this limit is reached, the system performs the following operations:
• Terminates multiple frame operation
• Discards all outstanding information frames
• Transitions the peer to the TEI-assigned state
• Initiates multiple frame setup
If the remote peer receives a frame that contains an error, it sends an REJ message
to specify which frame was in error. In response, the local peer retransmits
information frames, beginning with the bad frame.
If the remote peer encounters an error that retransmission cannot remedy, it sends
an FRMR response to the local peer and transitions to the TEI-assigned state. The
local peer discards all outstanding information frames, transitions to the
TEI-assigned state, and initiates multiple frame setup.
The supervisory frames, RNR and RR, support flow control on the channel. If the
receiver is not ready to receive data, it sends an RNR message to tell the sender to
wait. When it is ready to receive data, it sends an RR message. Flow control in one
direction is independent of the other direction.
Timer T203
Timer T203 is used to detect a lost connection. When either end of the link is not
waiting for any data, it starts timer T203. If it sends or receives no frames before
this timer expires, the peer transitions to the timer recovery state, sends either an
RR or RNR message to the remote peer, and starts timer T200. If timer T200
expires, the connection is assumed lost, and the peer transitions to the
TEI-assigned state.
To terminate multiple frame support on the circuit, one peer sends a DISC
message to the other. The receiving peer responds with a UA message, and
disconnects the circuit.

SVC Signaling
The following sections describe the signaling between a DTE and the frame relay
network in which various types of messages are exchanged.

Call Setup
A frame relay SVC is established using the frame relay signaling protocol
between the subscriber (DTE) and the network. This protocol is described in the
sections that follow.

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