Friday, June 22, 2007

Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Introduction

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is an Interior Gateway Protocol used to exchange routing information within a domain or autonomous system.
RIP lets routers exchange information about destinations for the purpose of computing routes throughout the network. Destinations may be individual hosts, networks, or special destinations used to convey a default route.
RIP is based on the Bellman-Ford or the distance-vector algorithm. This means RIP makes routing decisions based on the hop count between a router and a destination. RIP does not alter IP packets; it routes them based on destination address only.

RIP Version 1 Support
Overview

RIP Version 1 contains minimal amount of information required for routers to route data within a network. A RIP Version 1 packet contains the following information:
• Version - the version of RIP
• Command - Request, Response
• Address Family - used to identify the protocol associated with the address
• IP Address
• Metric or hop count - indicates the number of hops (routers) the packet must
traverse before reaching the destination

Maximum Hop Count
RIP permits a maximum hop count of 15 and any destination with a hop count exceeding 15 identifies it as unreachable and after time it is removed from the routing table. The maximum hop count restricts RIP use in large networks, however, it prevents the problem of repetitive, network loops.

RIP Version 2 Support
Overview RIP Version 2 is an extension of RIP Version 1. It expands the amount of useful information in RIP packets and adds security features. RIP Version 2 shares the same basic functionality of RIP Version 1, however, it resolves some of the shortcomings of the earlier version by providing the following enhancements:
• Support for Variable Length Subnet Masks
• Support for discontiguous subnets
• Password authentication
• IP address multicasting support
RIP Version 2 lets you design IP networks where you need VLSM and Authentication support without the complexity of OSPF. Moreover, RIP Version 2 may be a better solution in some less complex networks where the limitations of 15 hops maximum and fixed metrics is not prohibitive.

Backward Compatibility
RIP Version 2 routers receive and send either RIP Version 2 or RIP Version 1 messages, depending on how you configure the interfaces on your routers. This means you can have routers running either RIP Version 1 or RIP Version 2 in your network. In addition, you can configure your routers to pass either or both versions’
packets.

Note
Using IP Multicasting in your network prevents RIP Version 1 routers from receiving RIP Version 2 messages.

Maximum Hop Count
Because of the requirement for compatibility with RIP Version 1, RIP Version 2 adheres to same maximum hop count of 15.

RIP Limitations
RIP is primarily intended for use in homogeneous networks of moderate size. Because of this, RIP has some specific limitations including:
• As the maximum number of hops is limited to 15 hops, a hop count of 16 is considered infinite.
• The RIP metric (hop count) cannot adequately describe variations in a path’s characteristics and this could result in suboptimal routing. For example, hop count does not evaluate the link speed of a particular path.
• RIP is slow to find new routes when the network changes. This search consumes considerable bandwidth, and in extreme cases, exhibits a slow convergence behavior referred to as a count to infinity.

RIP Version 2 Packet Format

RIP Version 2 Subnet Masks
Overview
The Subnet Mask portion of a RIP Version 2 packet yields the non-host portion of the IP address. This means RIP Version 2 distinguishes between the host, subnet, or network route for a destination IP address to allow for subnet routing. RIP Version 1 dropped or incorrectly routed packets to disjointed or discontiguous subnets. This is not the case with RIP Version 2 because it sends the subnet mask along with the address.

Discontiguous Subnets
Because RIP Version 2 includes the subnet mask in the IP packet, it also supports discontiguous subnets. Using RIP Version 1, routers R1, R2, R3, and R4 can broadcast network level information only. Without configuring static routes between these routers, other packets cannot be routed over the disjointed subnets. Since RIP Version 2 packets include the subnet mask the packets pass successfully to the subnets.

RIP Version 2 Authentication
Overview

Authentication supports a simple 16-byte password key to provide security between routers. This means you can configure a password for each interface on your router. When you enter the password at the CTP, it is contained in the RIP Version 2 packet, and checked against the authentication key configured in the router. Only matching keys are allowed access to the router.

RIP Version 2 Multicasting
Overview
RIP Version 2 supports broadcast or multicast updates. This means you can multicast RIP Request or Response datagrams instead of broadcasting them. This increases security and conserves resources on non-RIP hosts. Using an IP Multicast address reduces the load on hosts unable to support routing protocols such as RIP. This feature also lets RIP Version 2 routers share information that RIP Version 1 routers cannot hear. This is important since RIP Version 1 routers may misinterpret route information because it cannot apply the subnet mask supplied in RIP Version 2 packets.

Note
IGMP is not needed on a RIP Version 2 router since inter-router messages are not forwarded.
RIP Version 2 and OSPF
Introduction
With the improvements of RIP Version 2, the differences between OSPF and RIP are less significant. Both OSPF and RIP version 2 now support:
• Variable Length Subnet Masks
• Discontiguous subnets
• Authentication
• Routing information sent by multicasting
If you must choose between using OSPF and RIP Version 2 for routing operations on your network, keep in mind that OSPF works best in large, hierarchical networks with redundant paths to destinations requiring best path routing decisions. RIP Version 2 works best in small networks with single links to remote destinations or simple backups.

Advantages and Disadvantages of OSPF and RIP
While a solution that combines using both protocols on some nodes may be used, there are some advantages and disadvantages to think about before you make your choice:
OSPF advantages include:
• Scalable for very large networks
- OSPF uses a path cost rather than a hop count to determine best path
- OSPF can be subdivided into defined areas
• Supports true best path routing
• Acknowledges routing information
• Easier to troubleshoot
• Fast convergence
OSPF disadvantages include:
• Complex network configuration
• Higher CPU and memory requirements
• No support for SVC rerouting
• Update frequency fixed at 30 minute intervals
• Increases routing table size
• Requires more routers for redundant all OSPF network design
• LSA flooding problems in unstable networks
RIP Version 2 advantages include:
• Simple configuration
• SVC rerouting
• RIP on Demand
• Low cost CPU and memory demand
RIP Version 2 disadvantages include:
• Hop count limit of 15 hops
• Does not always pick the best route because routing decisions are always
made on hop count not congestion or traffic limitations
• Slower convergence in large networks
• No acknowledgment of routing updates
• Difficult to troubleshoot.

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